The urinary system is comprised of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra. The kidneys are situated on the rear wall of the abdomen laying either side of the vertebrae between T12 and L3, with the right kidney sitting lower than the left.
The ureters are muscular tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder lies between the ureters and the urethra which lies within the lower abdominal region.
The function of the urinary system is to filter blood and eliminate waste such as urea, uric acid and creatnine from the body; it regulates blood volume and blood pressure by secreting the enzyme rennin from the juxtaglomerular cells, it regulates blood pH and maintains homeostasis of water, electrolytes and metabolites.
The urinary system also plays an integral role in the activation of vitamin d for calcium absorption and also in the maintenance of homeostasis.
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